Atmanam Atmana Pasya (Sanskrit) [from atman self + the verbal root pas to see] See the self by the self; a favorite phrase used in Vedanta philosophy, especially by Sankaracharya. In its highest interpretation it refers to Avalokitesvara which is "in one sense 'the divine Self perceived or seen by Self,' the Atman or seventh principle ridded of its mayavic distinction from its Universal Source -- which becomes the object of perception for, and by the individuality centred in Buddhi, the sixth principle, -- something that happens only in the highest state of Samadhi. This is applying it to the microcosm" (ML 343).
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In the Upanishads the same idea is often expressed in the allegory of the two birds seated in a tree -- one bird looking at the other.